Senin, 08 Februari 2010

The Dayak Jangkang Repentance: from Headhunting to be Catholic

Areas of headhunters called Jangkang, first visited by "tuan serani" at around 1930.

The term "tuan serani" is specifically posted to call Dayak Jangkang foreign missionaries in the old old days. Tuan mean master or a priest and serani mean a Christian.

Thus, the term was intended as a Catholic priest named Pastor Fridolinus van Vehgel. This was done in order to tourney in the Sanggau Parish region.

The visit of this historic place before independence in October 1934. As known, the origin of the Jangkang parish in the beginning is part of the Sanggau Parish.
Sanggau parish in 1939 as a Jangkang parish embryo.

Sanggau Parish itself comes from Sejiram. In 1909, Father Gonsalvus who worked in just a week in Sejiram and later settled in Sanggau, the city at Kapuas River banks. A young man who was interested in mission work, Tolli, joined together Gonsalvus. As the approval of his parents, he was finally coming to school in Sejiram, Upper Kapoeas. Tolli eventually attracted many young men joined the school in Sanggau to Sejiram. Learn more about the history of the establishment of the Sanggau Parish can be read in the report, Sustainable research on Parish Profile Sanggau by Boelaars, et al. especially pages 29-33.

Books of status animarum (from the Latin word, status = position, status and animarum = soul.) So, status animarum is a book that records the status or race data, complete with date, month, year of birth and when receiving the sacraments in the Catholic Church tradition.) Jangkang parish initially stored in the Sanggau Parish.

Kobang mass baptism in the year 1939 by Father Ewald Nobel. Himu at that time was a teacher and he baptized according to Catholic rites and attended by the head of the village.

Unfortunately, the original book disappeared during World War II. So, after the war, Father Fridolinus try knitting again strands of history by relying on memory and mobilize all of his mind to write them back.

In 1934, the number of Catholics in Jangkang was not yet how. Generally still embrace the original ancestors. However, from memory Fridolinus Father, the Japanese occupation era around the year 1942, the number of Catholics on the ground Jangkang approximately 150 people.

Two European missionaries of the Swiss and the Dutch Pastor Lazarus and Herman. They love and be loved by the Dayak Jangkang.

Two messengers, Herman and Lazarus tourney on foot. They climbed the hill, down the valley, and across rivers. What a great their services for the Dayak Jangkang! No wonder, when people hear Lazarus died while on leave in Switzerland due to brain cancer, they cry and gathered together praying that their beloved pastor had gone to heaven.

For ease of service, parish, parish founded Sanggau parish. Before the war, parish, parish existing in the region is the Jangkang parish Kobang, Jangkang Continent, and the Turtles.

Stasi (from English word 'station'), this parish has been welcoming visitors since 1934. However, just received a visit on a regular basis in 1937. Priests who had turne to this parish is Father Fridolinus, P. Christianus, P. Ewald Prize, and P. Kasianus.

It is important to note in a series of parish ministry Sanggau mission is the mission of the efforts and services to educate the Dayak Jangkang ethnic educated, so that more adaptive to the current and changing times. On September 1, 1937, P. SD Jangkang Christianus open. A year later, on October 3, 1938, primary schools receive subsidies from the government, which then is popularly known SD Subsidi Jangkang.

Year 1938 also became an important milestone for P. Ewald and Br. Donulus establish a new school building in Jangkang Benua. While in Kobang erected a chapel. Because the school and the people are permanently in Jangkang, it was decided since 1938 till May 1942 became the priest Father Ewald remained for Jangkang region. Ewald would rather live in Kobang because the cool weather and cold, and besides it was on the back of Mount Balu (Boruh) and Bengkawan. Because more often live in Kobang, the Pastor Ewald, dubbed "Mr. Kobang".

Besides the cool weather, Ewald lived in Kobang also for security reasons. European missionaries, he became a fugitive accomplice and Japanese soldiers at that time. After painstakingly trying to hide and move their homes, Ewald finally gave it up. He was arrested by the Japanese. Then forcibly taken to a detention camp in Kuching, and died in prison camp before his fellow prisoners released in 1945.

After all, after the arrest and intimidation of Ewald Japan, the Church is not covered Jangkang speck fear. In fact, in November 1943, received a visit of Javanese priest, P. Adikarjana. This Javanese priest even baptize and convert some people and inaugurate Jangkang marriage and the surrounding population in the Catholic religion.

Post-Japanese occupation, P. Fridolinus had a pastoral visit to Jangkang in 1946. New in March 1947 came to Jangkang Father Josef Herman van Hutlen.

The first Jangkang parish church building, first used on Christmas Eve mass in 1951. At that time the parish pastor was P. Herman Josef van Hulten.

Herman was on leave in October 1948. During vacation, he was replaced by P. v.d. Bos, Hyasintus Key, and P. David Paulisse which include duty finish area boundaries of the community Jangkang rectory, Kobang, and turtles. Also purchased the former home of Himu teachers. After returning from vacation, 1946, P. Herman remained on duty in Jangkang.

Father Diomedes in his capacity as an economist Pontianak Diocese helped prepare complete and houses belonging to Himu became the first rectory. Development plan of the church began to be negotiated at that time.

Thus, the 12 September 1951 at Jangkang parish was officially opened by the Bishop of Pontianak at the time, Msgr. Tarcicius van Valenberg by mail AV numbered 383/51. From then on, the books removed from status animarum Sanggau Jangkang to be stored on the Continent since July 1, 1951.

Mgr. Tarcicius van valenberg, bishop of Pontianak at that time. To his letter, the Jangkang parish was erected.

In addition to the church building, mission critical look at the school founded Jangkang ground. Not only as a means of liberation from the Dayak Jangkang isolation, backwardness, and ignorance. SD Jangkang also seen as a doorway to liberation in the broad sense, the liberation of inner and outer. Recorded as primary school teacher who first Jangkang Himu from Kobang.

After receiving a subsidy from the Government, Elementary Jangkang then get extra teachers of Fr. Ayub of the Mandung. The first religious teacher was Marius Linggi of Sejiram. In early 1942, Marius Linggi replaced by Nyurai until the year 1946.

After the war, who served as assistant teacher of religion is Ign. Ahoy origin Kobang and F. Kangen comes from Penyu. Religious teachers were added again, which is F. Tion of Jangkang and St. Ahim from Empiyang.

Establishment of schools, was abundant fruit. Many children, especially school children, interested in being a Catholic and were baptized. Religious instruction (often also called catechumens. Namely baptismal candidates (Catholic) who will be baptized prepared in such a way, not just knowledge about the Catholic religion, but also especially inner preparation) for school kids do after school lessons. Apparently, these children will also influence their parents to further Catholic too.

In 1947, the school reopened in order to accommodate the children in Empiyang and Kotup. Elementary School opened in 1948 in Ketori and Engkode (Upper Sape) and Entakai. Then, in the 1950s opened another elementary school in Empodis, Darok, Sum, and Lalang.

From, and through schools, evangelization among the Dayak Jangkang started grateful. Of school children is also the Catholic religion began to go into people's homes, such a compromise between the Church and the local culture. And slowly started to happen the local culture cross over or hybrid.

However, in terms of entry of the Catholic religion in the middle of Dayak Jangkang, hybrid terminology is not entirely correct, because the hybrid is the result of mixing two different kinds of things, make something new. In the case of entry of the Catholic religion into the middle of the Dayak Jangkang seems most appropriate adaptation and acculturation. Because, at the crossing, which was the dominant views of the Catholic Church.

How catholic church teaches faith through culture and the minds of the Dayak peole can be read in a catechism book compiled by Pankat KA Pontianak (1981) Semangat Kristus (The Spirit of Christ). So, the missionaries in their evangelization of acculturation among Dayak Jangkang doing something was very interesting. Not only from missiology science, but also the science of semiotics.

Capuchin Order provincial P. Clementinus visit Jangkang parish and offered a Mass in 1959.

Missiology is indeed a science of techniques spreading the faith to the nations by spreading the Catholic faith, without denying or eliminating the local culture of Western missionaries applied correctly.

As noted Boelaars OFM Cap from Atma Jaya Research Center in 1979, "Missieonering method originally used by a visit from village to village without an invitation. In the villages visited endeavored to establish schools for children in surrounding villages, or at least tried to be the children who wished to study sent to places that already have such schools in Sanggau and Nyarumkop."

Interestingly, Boelaars underlines a very unique technique of how the mission and culture through indigenous Dayak Jangkang at an early stage. "Finally secretly compromise arises between these two groups (Dayak Jangkang and church -author) in order to avoid gaps that increasingly pointed the way to accept the new religion, but important elements of the old traditional ceremonies such as birth, marriage, disease and death, a celebration of rice, is also still running.

There are even villages regularly every year to worship ceremonies are animists. This is just starting to change since the P. Anton as an indigenous priest began serving in this parish (Boelaars, 1979: 26). The Church gave birth to what is called the adaptation and acculturation.

P. Anton as an indigenous priest began serving in Jangkang Parish.

When the conditions for the establishment of a parish is fulfilled, then the Jangkang parish was established as an independent, separate from the Sanggau parish as a parent.

So, then on September 12, 1951, officially stand Jangkang parish boundaries is as follows.

Eastside District Sekayam and Mualang area.
West side Sekayam River.
North of the border district and Kembayan Sekayam.
South side of the Kapuas River.

Jangkang Parish Catholics numbered 1,100 people when set up, it's spelled out in 350 people who are still catechumens. All the way from first menggereja live up to the 1970's, Jangkang parish experienced at least two times a change or revitalization areas.

First, in 1962. Region Hulu Tanjung (between Kapuas River, Sekayam and Engkatat) combined with Sanggau Parish. As a result of downsizing, as many as 226 Parishes Catholics Jangkang animarum reduced and its status was transferred to the Parish Sanggau.

Second, the priest of Jemongko gave the Hulu Sae (Sub Noyan) became part of the area Jangkang Parish. This new area consists of six villages with a population of about 750 inhabitants. Of this amount, only four people have already embraced the Catholic religion. The challenge, as well as the mission of the Church is how mengkatolikkan (make the headhunters to be Catholic)Jangkang 746 people again?

Therefore, start thinking a new mode, so that church attendance is more deeply rooted. So, built the rectory (priest's residence house) and the church building. The first parish rectory Jangkang is the former home of an expanded teacher Himu with two rooms and a kitchen in 1950.

Jangkang parish region as a part of the archdiocese of Pontianak.

While Jangkang church was built by village artisans, skilled workers aided the ethnic Malays of the Balai Sebut. Part of the church building was completed and first used on Christmas in 1951. This church building will only really fully completed in 1959.

Having successfully built the rectory and church building, the mission also founded the dormitories. Particularly dormitory for elementary school children Jangkang which opened after the independence of the Republic of Indonesia. In 1962 built a dormitory that also functioned for the parish hall.

Jangkang former rectory house, now abandoned and no longer resident.

Entering the 1970s, the national economic situation more difficult. Food crisis began to be felt everywhere, including in Jangkang. Father Lazarus is known to be very generous, helpful, and skillful treatment of the sick people, getting food supplies from abroad.

In the midst of food crisis that is, to come aid in the amount of more than enough supply in the form of bulgur and milk powder. Residents who have money can buy low prices. However, for those who can not afford sufficient energy exchanged with the work of a priest (Works with people to get wages in the Jangkang language called ngosangk.

The tradition is still alive today. His reward according to the needs of an increasing life. Ngosangk Now day's pay for this type of jobs mild to moderate, such as cutting and grazing, or sowing, ranging from Rp15,000. 00 - Rp20,00. 00 per day. As for the type of heavy work, such as digging or carrying heavy loads even higher, between Rp25,000.00-Rp35,000 per day). Day work got four cans bulgur. Incidentally, Pastor Lazarus with Father David saw no immediate major projects done, but it requires effort and cost a very large.

Kampung Jangkang located right on the river rushing Ence from the valley of Mount Bengkawan. On the left and right of the river are fertile. Mountain land mud mixed with the leaves, eventually forming a very fertile topsoil and pile up more and more along the riverbanks.

There Jangkang Dayak custom, they most like to grow vegetables on the riverbanks. Cassava, sweet potato, transplantation (katuk), pusu (troop) toluk (egg) (sugar cane flower), papaya, mustard greens, spinach and vegetables of all kinds flourish in Ence river.

Unfortunately, every monsoon, the village Jangkang always flooded. As a result, a lot of material loss arising. Livestock lost along with the flow of flood, like the sap of property also soaked drift, not to mention countless hassles during floods. Water entered the house and, after that, takes time and effort to clean it up.

To prevent flooding, the Science River which flows from upstream villages Jangkang made it necessary to reduce the sewage flow of water.

So Lazarus and David were designed to make the canal that cuts across the Ence River transparent to downstream villages. Length of more than three miles. The width of six meters. Special and in the hills, the location of the bathhouse Paulus Kipa is also a catechist, Lada trench depth reaches 20 meters.

So you can imagine, what a wonderful project initiated and David Lazarus is to save Jangkang from flood hazards.

Trench Lada was built by a duo Lazarus-David saving the residents from the flood.

In the upstream, there was a small hill blocking. However, there is no other way but to cut the hill, although there are rock bottom Wadas.

The workers who broke the stones were resident and surrounding Jangkang who are experiencing a food crisis. The priest and the people are equally benefited by the project. Few, long into the hill. Thus, work by work begins.

Finally, about a year, the canal was finished workmanship. Then given a name by taking a combination of the first syllable and David Lazarus name of "Lazarus-David or Lada".

Later, this exemplary project and practiced in other places by the parish priest outside Jangkang.

The early 1970s, the development of very rapid Jangkang Parish. Increased more great race. Recorded in 1975 the population in the Jangkang parish area were 22,280. They were scattered in distant places.

The distance from the farthest point from the parish center to Polo Poda Jangkang along 36 km. Before there is an adequate road to go through the motor, the trip walking distance 13 hours. The number of Catholics in 1975 as many as 6,762.

At the beginning of the Jangkang parish standing, sacramental ministry and the development of people of faith made by visiting priest villages. Visits carried out on foot through a difficult route, sometimes climbing a hill, explore the valley, down the canyon, cross the river, and tread the swamp. Because all traffic routes aimed at achieving several villages, and in each ward usually overnight, then travel Jangkang priests called "turne" (tourney).

Turne time may take two to week. When turne, eat what the priest provided the people and the people stayed at home, too. New in the 1970s, turne to involve villages catechists. In fact, a very important role as a catechist pacer and prepare the people. Then, on the last day, or closing, there was a priest.

Because development is so very fast people, required a non-religious force priests to serve the non-sacramental character. So in 1974 was sent to work in Jangkang Brother Paulus Tikui, known OFM Cap enterprising and skilled work in carpentry. He was also very authoritative, so that the people respected and district officials Jangkang.

Brother Paul helped build a new church and also a new elementary school that moved on the River That, Dampah Robungkang feet. In 1976, a brother came back from Holland, Frans Pallandt. Brtoher Frans, as he is familiarly called, is very close to the people, especially young children. In an instant, he was very fluent Jangkang.

You could say, the era of the 1970s until the 1980s was a golden age of Jangkang parish. Hidup menggereja (Catholic religious life) very dynamic life. Relations priests and brothers with a very close race. Every night held a full rosary.

Every Sunday evening prayers were held Salve. Every Sunday, a church filled with people. In fact, on Church holidays (Christmas, Easter, Pentecost) in the entire parish congregation spilling Jangkang come to celebrate for three days. They stayed in people's homes. In a series of Church's feast day, there is usually a crowd and sports games that involve not only the Catholic population of the village, which also non-Catholic.

In this golden age also the local customs and culture began to be adapted. Akulturisasi (acculturation) process run smoothly, along with a growing number of religion teachers and catechists local son who helped the priest in sacramental ministry and Seara take an active part in pastoral care.

Discussions held more intense. Parish pastoral activity more and more, touching almost all the people of the base. In fact, in the parish center is often held retreats. Preparations for the reception of the sacrament is also very serious.

One of the many adaptation and acculturation is when the Parish Council issued Decree Jangkang on the Customary Law Concerning Religious Life dated August 16, 1977 signed by Father Anton as Chairman of the Parish Council. This decision is the intention of compromise or cross over between the traditional local culture and teachings of the Catholic religion.

In fact, adaptation and inculturation in the parish in advance Jangkang has been enacted. Dated December 25, 1965 for example, Stephanus Ahim as Head Empiyang Parish Indigenous customary law setting prevailing in the area of child Empiyang patterned Parish ecclesial.

This decision letter as confirmation of the opinion of chiefs in a meeting dated December 24, 1965. This decision can be called as adaptation of the teachings of the Catholic Religion which regulates issues regarding Catholic marriage.

Brother Franz was working hard to build Jangkang parish church building. At that time workers were still manual work, so slaving.

A second Jangkang parish church building, built in 1976 by Brother Frans Pallandt and Paulus Tikui. Development during the P. Lazarus became parish priest at that time.

If there is a violation or disagreement on both sides of the marriage, then the solution is not through religious judiciary, but custom is adopting the customs and culture of the Dayak Jangkang. Adopted a customary law on divorce, marriage is not legal, valid marriage, divorce after marriage, adultery, and the basic customs (tahil). Read more about this decision can be studied in Boelaars, op.cit., Pages 84-86.

However, because Anton is the first native priest who worked in Jangkang, and his influence is huge and significant impact on the development and Dayak Katolikisasi Jangkang, he became a milestone for the adaptation and inculturation. As noted Boelaars (1979: 31-32) the following:

The appeal of "Katholicisme 'increased after the arrival of P. Anton Innocent Daem 1975 as the first indigenous priest serving in this Jangkang ground. At that time Protestants also felt pressured slightly and started to 'attack' spread the religion starting from the Mualang, Sanggau, and Sekayam, causing competition with the adherents of the Catholic religion. A healthy competition would benefit because each party seeks to increase knowledge of the teachings of their religion, but on the other hand the unity of the village needs to be cracked so it can give other groups a chance entered.

A letter from Mgr. Herculanus years of Missio-1969 a new policy in fact partly justifies the means of pastoral work that has begun in the Jangkang parish, and partly to give new ideas to the awamisasi (delegations to the layman) local church. "

On Sundays and religious holidays, Catholics in the parish of Jangkang conditioned not work. This is in accordance with the teachings of the Church, in order to specialize in one day a week to worship and glorify God.

Jangkang Catholics today: less maintained their faith. Catholics number Jangkang parish was amazing, 22,000, but the quality of their faith is lower than the 1940-1980s.

And that's how it happened. During Lazarus became Jangkang priest, Parish people obey. Because of the strategic location of the presbytery, Jangkang people who passed down to the fields,hunting, fishing and into the garden, so the suggestion to not work on Sunday was followed.

Unfortunately, when the number of Catholics grew more and more, the maintenance of their soul is less. Everywhere, as in the face of this earth, when there is no longer a challenge, people become lazy and complacent fast. Jangkang Catholics there is now 22,000, the majority of other religions in the Jangkang district.

Where are the seeds of faith planted by the missionaries? Perhaps in heaven, the apostles, who were white, kept praying that Jangkang repent for the second time .....
This article is one chapter of my book Dayak Jangkang: from Headhunting to the Catholic Majority. May quote part or in full, provided that identify the source and author's name.

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