Sabtu, 13 Februari 2010

DAYAK JANGKANG: The Origins and Developments

Dayak Jangkang where and how their origins?

Many versions of the origin Bokidoh dialect speakers, both in the form stories from mouth to mouth or from the legend. However, as usual a scientific study, the story of mouth to mouth must be verified either through interviews, field studies, and through the literature study.

Lontaan (Lontaan, 1975: 327) in the field of research into the area Sekadau especially when writing the results of his research in the area Sekadau among others, noted,

“Suku Daya Benawas berdiam di daerah Kecamatan Sekadau Kabupaten Sanggau. …dari kota Sekadau terbentanglah memanjang di seberang sungai Kapuas sebuah kampung. Di seberang sanalah akan ditemui beberapa suku Daya. Di sana ada suku Daya Benawas, Ketungau, Jangkang, dan lain-lainnya.”

In the 1970s, Dayak Jangkang seems to have found in the region Sekadau. Of course, as is already out subsuku left poya tona (land inheritance) (1), because in the 1970s was used Jangkang people migrated to the outer region, both for reasons to eat salary (2) as well as studying the reasons.

However, a big mistake if necessarily draw the conclusion that the origin of the Dayak Jangkang fragments or derived from Benawas Power (3) which is the origin of the county is Sekadau and fragments coveralls or group and Babai Cinga- Dara Nante on an expedition to find new areas in Sanggau.

Sekayam estuary in 1939.
Sekayam River estuary, fell right in the heart of Sanggau. This is where the party rested Dara Nante as it gets to the next obstacle to continued travel through the water toward Mengkiang River along River Entabai.

According to interviews with indigenous leaders and elders Jangkang mention that the origin of the Dayak Jangkang fraction of the group and Babai Dara Nante nante. In a journey to find her husband, Babai Cinga, Dara Nante group disabilities in Sekayam River estuary.

After several days trying to overcome the difficulties, they were finally able to continue the journey back along the River Sekayam. After a long voyage, when he met the child Entabai River (4), directly to premonition along these tributaries. The more upstream, the group then stopped at Entabai river, in a village called Tampun Juah.

In Tampun Juah, Dara nante met her husband, Babai Cinga. After a few days meeting, the group returned to Sanggau to leave the village Babai Cinga. The second parting husband and wife beings is probably due to the call of duty. Tampun Juah is increasingly developing into a busy neighborhood. After the crowded, as usual, problems arise socioeconomic complicated and need a solution. One of them is the problem of food.

Finally, one time residents of Tampun Juah affected by disaster that affecting all citizens. Perhaps this story is not entirely to be trusted and swallowed it raw just like that, but should be interpreted and understood as a symbolic language. What remains to be ditelisik using language symbols and meaning that in the scientific sphere is known as semiotics (5).

Fraction of Tampun Juah
Engkarong tribe from Tampun Juah, poya tona Babai and Dara Nante (6). At that time, there are strange events that befall the Tampun Juah people. Families attacked by "enemies of the dark", each time cooking the rice, direct stench, can not be eaten (people who told it to say that the rice smell of human shit). However, one family had a reason.

Each finished cooking the rice, taken ashes, then sprinkled over rice. The wise family name-wise this is Rege Mang Mincar every meal of rice, the top layer of ash covered with discarded, and the edible layer that did not hit bottom ash. While others who are not doing the same thing, the rice can not be eaten. Because of that, they then think and finally decided to leave Tampun Juah. Everything left Tampun Juah, including tribes and tribal Ribunt Mahala and Mang Mincar also move, although the family had managed to overcome the problem.

Then there was a mass displacement of Tampun Juah to Tampun Entabai. So long in Tampun Entabai, then to move back to Polimpah. From Polimpah nomads again to Ulu Sungai Moncangk (Mengkiang), ie Sotantangk. Long settled in this place, people then return to Mengkiang River downstream, to Nanga Solabau. In Naga Solabau this family stay long enough. Then the family again Mincar River downstream Moncangk to Botuh Barah (until now this area is Botu Barah tribal boundaries) (7).

Then, the Nanga Sobut River met a Malays named Peh. Close family relationship between Mincar and Peh. Wherever Peh travel using bamboo boats with flares, trading from village to village, from the estuary to the upstream Mengkiang. Sometimes travel Peh and her brother using beacons named Dio.

Peh and Dio exchange goods with the Dayak people, such as salt, tobacco, clothing, cloth, iron, bai, pots, spoons, bowls, dishes that bartering to rice. At that time, rural residents are not familiar with the currency because it is far from the town of king. Then came the practice was to tarry Mengkiang Upper River, into a comfortable place for the residents anchored enough. There were stations where people used to exchange merchandise, so called the "hall". From this will emerge as a Call Center of the hall there is named tributary Call or Sungi Sobut.

Relations Dayak-Malays who have this long established and entrenched in the title. The term Dayak fine if the person to place the Malays, the Malays would say, "Odoh mah monik DOMPU" (apparently come ye, DOMPU), it will be answered, "odoh moh somang" (Yes, somang). So, people do not consider Dayak Malays as others, because the origins of their ancestors and the same one but with the term "Sinan" or "Senganan". So, who embraced Islam Dayak called Senganan, not Malays.

Then, the group Mang Mincar Rege and, of course along with his move to Sorontamp, polaman (8) the most. Then from here there is a break into the hue, which Sekantut and so forth Engkarong, from Engkarong broke into Semombat. Sorontamp it from there to Ponyo or Sinyok (Landau now). After Engkarong tribes inhabit the area Engkarong, Engkarong officials occured events and Ribun officer at the time.

The Origin of Jangkang
The origin of Jangkang from a village lobor (9) named Ponongu. Located in Tabao, the left if Moncang forth along the River. In there are two bars Ponongu villages. Usually, there is an agreement, if the low harvest, then one employee party. But somehow, in that year (no agreement) between the two villages, even though both have the village chief, both eventually agreed to disagree a clerk.

In ancient times, two villages separated by a road. Therefore, the term is also known as the left the village and ward right. At a time when it first street right ward clerk, while the left has not.

At the time that employees have a child, with her grandmother at home. They left the village residents. At that time, his father's mother was not at home, still harvesting rice (ngetam) in the field. Pawan child's name. This Ponongu ward, after lobor, became Dorik (Mountain) Sobomant.

Then move from here and then to Dosant, these villages grew into large, many people look for new settlements. There was a cross to be Ensanong far, there are also more distant to the Jangkang. Go to the downstream of which there are Dosant to Kamongk, near Sanggau, became the latitude and Jonti (Pompangk tribe).

Then the most prominent of the Dayak Pompangk is named Sinot beautiful woman who became queen of King Sanggau. Thus, the dissolution of the village approximately Ponongu little later than the time for Babai Cinga-Dara Nante.

Pawan who left homes and Ponongu migrated to the Sekadau region, the area of Mahap. From a young boy who told his grandmother asked the meat to the people who are employees that are named Pawan River that passes through Ketapang District (10). One of Pawan descendants who became empress King of Matan.

Some residents who live in Ponongu areas Terati be Ensanong tribe. There is a direct upstream again met with more Science River upstream to the Jangkang embryo.

Not many people Jangkang time, only three lawangk (11) (three families). They initially settled in the village area Jangkang today, but the Botuh Logunt. About a mile upstream Jangkang village now, who is now a rice field aeral family Loncai (Mang Tini). From here developed, a new burst again. Rather than going downstream, preferably upstream, to the foot of the hill Bengkawan and Boruh named Kobangk. This village leaders are Tiger Out (which became known as Crazy Grandpa or Kek Gila).

However, one day, the villagers got Botuh Logunt pestilence (12). Then move some families, about 5 families (lawangk), to Songongk (about one kilometer from Jangkang now, River downstream Ence).

As a result of this plague, people Kobang and Songongk fights and taunting each other. When people Kobang to pass Songongk Call Center, they heard the sound through the rice with a pestle to pound mockingly, "Nto odoh paji kidoh, nto odoh paji kidoh" (now there is, then there is no more to eat).

In Songongk, there is also a similar incident. Then going home again to Polumpor (raw wood to build houses). Finally, build a permanent home became Ompuk daih, because of its proximity Air Jangkang. Since the late 1940s, until now, residents of this Opmuk Jangkang never more and never less than 8 families alone.

There Jangkang people who married, moved to Tunongk (Parus), and from Parus melaman again to far. Until named Jangkang Punt (Jangkang Original) and Jangkang Tojok. Thus, Engkolai, Tomok, Pisangk, until Toriangk including Jangkang Tojok.

Then, around the beginning of the year 1894 after the Tumbang Anoi, there ketemenggungan in Jangkang, namely local government. Tomonggong Engkarong, who stuck out as Tomonggongs koordionator. Then there ketemenggungan Kopa (in Empiyang), Ensanong (in Terati), Jangkang Tojok (Tumok), Ndoya (Linga), Empurangk (Poter), Soguna (Tija) from Mukok to Kedukul. Seven ketemenggungan coincided with the appointment of the board of Borneo.

As for the name Jangkang Continent, apparently derived from a timber and a creek. Meranti wood in a language called tokamp Jangkang. Wood is a variety of species, there tokamp hill, tokamp botuh, tokamp stars, and tokamp Jangkang. This timber thrives on the left and right of River Eence, river estuaries and Jangkang one of the most prominent is tokamp Jangkang. So the river is called River Jangkang and Jangkang village called the village, while the inhabitants called tribal Jangkang (Djo).

(1) ownership, customary land, the land ancestors who must remain maintained and preserved. This ancestral land and then characterize the identity of the group.

(2) Among the Dayak Jangkang, people who migrate out of the area to make a living or earning a salary is eaten. There are after many years working in foreign country back ground, but there is a settlement of a new home because they feel already fell at home and get a better livelihood. Dayak Jangkang called Lontaan in his research is a group of nomads, so not a native Jangkang, Jangkang area.

(3) Benawas Dayak origin can be read in Lontaan, op.cit, page 178.

(4) Compare J.U. Lontaan, op.cit, pages 170-171, also mentions that the group managed to meet Dara nante Babai Cinga in Tampun Juah. The elders and leaders called Dayak Jangkang Tampun Juah as tona and poya Jangkang (Engkarongk) first came from Tampun Juah.

(5) See among others, Daniel Chandler, Semiotics: The Basics (Roudledge, 2002), Norbert Elias, The Symbol Theory (Sage Publications: 1991), and Donald W. Thomas, Semiotics 3: Communication, Codes, & Culture (Ginn Custom Publishing: 1982).

(6) not found in the exactly when Dara Nante (founder of the Kingdom of Sanggau) was met with Babai Cinga. However, new Sanggau Kingdom history record and document the happenings in the 18th century kingdom. If so, surely Jangkang Dayak who has repeatedly moved from place to place the events since the attack "a dark enemy" in the form of rice that smells (buh tokek) in Tampun Webmail occurred before age 18.

(7) Until now still can trace accuracy and truth of the story and origin of this Jangkang Dayang. If for example walking, or on motorcycles, from the region Engkarong (Sekantut) to Sanggau, then boil Botuh this region can still be found.

(8) In Jangkang Dayak language, and also in Sanggau Dayak, precursor polaman is a village. At first, who built a house in polaman one family, if in time they looked at fixed and then multiplied into the village. Often called molaman. Dayak habits Jangkang if farming is far from the village and takes over, it's better to establish a permanent cabin, and it is called molaman.

(9) plague because laughing at people or animals.

(10) Presumably, the origin and story of this Pawan can explain why the language Jangkang phenomenon similar to certain areas in Ketapang (especially Nanga TAYAP). I know my friends from this area in Nyarumkop in high school and college in Malang (Mateus Yuli, Dobi, Mark Mardius, Djuweng, Julipin). We are equally telling Bokidoh language and there are no fundamental differences.

(11) lawangk this term seems to have influenced the Javanese language, which literally means: the door. Ordinary Jangkang Dayak calculate how many families with mace or how many doors (lawangk Kudu / Kudu door)?

(12) Once there, one day, the population decline Kobang bala ceremony. As is usually the starting troops, residents removed a small boat (for an adult's arm) and menghanyutkannya. The boat is full of symbol, indicating the charge is all the diseases and things that are bad. On one night, the boat crossed the Logunt village. Residents heard the crowd in passing, as if the crowds. A voice crying and there was a groan and a voice for help. Supposedly, because it sounds bad and no good signal, no response. Unfortunately, the sound hgaduh for help disahut, "If no strong perabuh pedaling again, stopped, and menataplah here with us." The pestilence was immediately attacked Botuh Logunt citizens and they all hit pestilence.
This article is part of my book: Dayak Djongkang, from Headhunting to Catholic Majority. Forbidden to quote or reproduce the text without mentioning the source and author names.

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