Sabtu, 06 Februari 2010

Book Banning and the Rise of Neo-New Order

Administration of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) to make rippled back end 2009. The government banned five books: Dalih Pembunuhan Massal Gerakan 30 September dan Kudeta Suharto by John Rosa, Suara Gereja bagi Umat Tertindas: Penderitaan Tetesan Darah dan Cucuran Air Mata Umat Tuhan di Papua Barat Harus Diakhiri by Cocratez Sofyan Yoman, Lekra Tak Membakar Buku: Suara Senyap Lembar Kebudayaan Harian Rakjat 1950-1965 by Rhoma Dwi Aria Yuliantri and Muhidin M Dahlan, Enam Jalan Menuju Tuhan by Darmawan and Mengungkap Misteri Keberagaman Agama by Syahrudin Ahmad.

According to former Jaksa Agung Muda bidang Intelijen (Attorney General Young of Intelligence-- Jamintel) Iskamto, "Jamintel do research on books that have been made clearinghouse dated December 3, 2009 to 5 books." It was conveyed in a press conference AGO Year Performance Report 2009 at the AGO, Jl. Sultan Hasanuddin, South Jakarta, Wednesday (23/12/2009).

Jamintel said that the books were banned because disturb public order, contrary to the 1945 Constitution and Pancasila. Not mentioned in detail which part of the fifth book of disturbing public order, in conflict with the Constitution of '45, and Pancasila. AGO Kapuspenkum Didiek Darmanto just said, clearinghouse is to examine the substance of the book. "We just checked the substance of the book, not the person," said Didiek. "Attorney General does not share the authors examine the books."

During his administration, was recorded two times SBY banned books in circulation. Two years ago, book publishers Galangpress, Tenggelamnya Grove Melanesia; fighting Homeland Politics in West Papua, Jayapura State Attorney confiscated, Thursday (13/12) into evidence, how communication is always in the direction of government policy for every event that is considered potentially threatening.

Attorney Decree Kep-123/A/JA / 11/2007 about the ban the circulation of printed books become the ultimate weapon to suppress the book. "State re-use iron hand to stifle freedoms of its citizens," commented AA Kunto in an open mailing list.

Since the New Order, banning books the subject of contention that in addition to interesting, too controversial. On the one hand, the academics consider banning books as an act of "outrageous". While the Government (AGO) see it as something natural because the book such a political smell potentially undermine the legitimate government authority, which was in power. With more specific language, Attorney General said that the reason for banning books (and other printed works) "for the sake of public order".

The book is different from the press. If the press made a mistake, the body can shut down the publisher. The press in question could be banned. But the book, at best, be withdrawn from circulation. While publishers (members could Ikapi or author) of books in the history of Indonesia has never closed or revoked Business Licenses (SIUP).

Before the New Ore fallen, two types of books are banned. First, the book considered by the Government such as books containing pornography Madame D. Syuga, Hideki Fuji essay, banned and withdrawn from circulation on November 8, 1993. Second, political books can be judged to instability and undermine the authority of central government power.

Government of glass eyes, maybe the books that have been assessed had banned political nuances, which can endanger the (government). However, in terms of academic interest, it is not impossible that all the banned books can be a very interesting study.

Just take for example, a book titled Karl Marx Das Capital that during the New Order was banned in Indonesia. Is not it really very useful read by economists and enthusiasts to understand the economic problems of economic science in relation to social problems? Thankfully, in the era of the Reformation, the book was published, and was quite sold as a commodity.

Should be recognized for the politicians, Marx's book is very suitable to be studied, as well as other important book, Mein Kampf Adolf Hitler's work. Without ever reading his own book, it was someone not legally referred to as economists and politicians.

Presumably, in that context, Darmanto Yatman, Undip Semarang lecturers and writers, had proposed that the books of certain writers (Pramoedya Ananta Toer) mbok yes be less problematic. At a minimum, the books banned by the government has allowed the campus to study materials (scientific study).

On the other hand, the Government had good reason to ban such books were in circulation. Tax Law on Safeguarding the 4/PSPN/1963 printed material that it can interfere with Public Order in exception not know this. Provided is expressly prohibited, without compromise, whoever and whatever to the interests of forbidden books still not be owned, duplicated, and distributed.

Apparently, the government always uses security approach in this regard. Supposedly, not so. Especially today, when the world more transparent and more so limitless, almost difficult to pull all of the printing works already in circulation.

Besides, how can ensure that anyone who buys and has forbidden books? How to track and take it back? How compensation mechanism in that regard? Only by an appeal to submit to the authorities, does not automatically guarantee the book will be submitted by the owner.

Moreover, the more forbidden, the more people want to find the book and the more people eager to read it out of curiosity. Might even be a bestseller. Because the ban means promotion. People increasingly want to know exactly what it says.

It would be very inconvenient for the Attorney General's research team, in this case the Security sub-Mass Media, Political Directorate of the Attorney General to have the book then examines who are "threatening national stability, moral damage and discredit the government" if a book marketed by direct selling, Door to door. Not to mention if, for example, the author of the book under a pseudonym and did not include the identity of a publisher, want to prosecute anyone?

Therefore, the approach should be used instead of the security side, but the cultural approach. So far, it determines the Attorney who banned a book or not by its own criteria, without openly with the author.

In this case, pull up the book New Brother, How to Explain Sex to Son Gunawan results translation edited by Prof. education experts. Dr. Conny Semiawan. Letter Number 012/JA/2/1989 execution from the Supreme Court banned the book comes out, with the pretext of pornography. In fact, according to Conny Semiawan, did the book talk about sex, but his approach is not from the pornography, but from the educational side.

Here it is very obvious that there is no compromise with the author / translator if a book banned by the Government. There was no view, or else a different perspective. Only one opinion.

The question: what causes a book withdrawn from circulation and banned? Apparently, the Attorney General with the clearinghouse member team consisting of permanent body angota Coordination (BIA), Police, Ministry of National Education, Ministry of Religious Affairs, and Depkominfo (first Deppen) already has its own criteria for it.

In the case of withdrawal of the book from circulation, the Attorney General always use Article 27 of Law on the Prosecutor of the Republic of Indonesia, which among other things mentioned, "In the field of public order and tranquility, prosecutors helped organize activities: security printed matter."

Therefore, disturbing public tranquility into a noose that can drag a writer accused of breaking the law, norms, and laws and regulations. Moreover, if the book contains elements that can be associated with spreading hatred and slander, no mercy, except it would muzzled.

Similarly, in accordance with MPRS No. XXV/MPRS/1966, the books contain and propagate the teachings of Marxism and Leninism was banned in Indonesia, even for scientific study. Until now, the provision was still not revoked, even though communism has disintegrated and the Soviet Union, where the origin of Leninism, has been shattered into their own country.

Except for particulars that struck the area of ethnicity, religion, race, and between groups (SARA) as the book Sin and Atonement in Islam and Christianity (1991), Muslim attitudes toward the Pancasila (1987), or the Ritual Haram jahilliyah (1988), scientific books prosecutors' offices may have a direct dialogue with the author. For example, book New Brother. Security is often only looked at the outside only, without examining whether the true contents of the book as alleged. Maybe, just looking for cases.

Still lucky to press for a warning / reprimand the first, second, and third (warning) before the verdict Bredel dropped. Uncompromising book, so forbidden, then quickly withdrawn from circulation. There was no prior warning.

Similarly, political books and questioning the status quo of the Government, immediately withdrawn. Call it as an example Menuntut Janji Orde Baru (1987), Who's Actually Doing coup against the government of President Sukarno (1987), Regulation bureaucratic Military Regime: The Case of Indonesia (1988), and Fighting for Democracy (1990).

Not surprisingly, especially the New Order era, almost every year in our country there are only books banned and withdrawn from circulation. And do not be surprised to know that during the period 1987-1997, has 70 books and printed by the government's declared "unlawful" to be consumed in Indonesia. Plus the last five books, two of this decade nearly a hundred books banned and declared unlawful read in Indonesia.

Banning books, in fact, not a monopoly of developed countries, including Indonesia. Developed countries like the United States was still doing the same thing. However, in developed countries that ban is always accompanied by a plausible argument. Supposedly, Government to do so.

Post-New Order, and during the Reformation, was rarely heard by the government ban the book. However, sweeping in bookstores and distributors who distribute certain products are considered "attacking", still frequently occur. In addition, there was also a terror on the publisher to publish certain works that are considered "left", or radical.

Essentially, the same actually! Tricks government scare people. This is equivalent to the words of the emperor Nero, "Let them (the people) hate, so long as fear!) –orderint dum metuant!

Is this a sign, soon came the neo-New Order?

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