Teak (tectonia grandis), one of the best timber species, other than meranti and metal-wood. At worst boards of teak, is still better than other wood. Because of that, appears the phrase, "Bad but teak board."
This is very fitting metaphor for the translation of books in our country. As bad as any discussion over the translation of the book, judging from the transfer of science and technology, is still better than if nothing at all. At a minimum, translation books that have been translated into Indonesian basic idea can be captured. Staying developed. Then adapted to the context of Indonesia.
In fact, efforts to boost the quality of translation, had often done. Countless have had several seminars on the translation of the book was held.
However, this was not sufficient to unravel all the tangled problems of translation of the book in Indonesia. In fact, the seminar organized Development Advisory Board of the National Book results have also appeared. All leads to the conclusion, many obstacles experienced by the translation of books in the country. And to solve the problem, it is required serious efforts and holistic.
If you want to traced, a series of problems facing not just about low ability translator, fees, copyright, royalties, and the accuracy of selecting books to be translated. But also about various things related, such as interest in reading, expensive raw materials (production of books) is still low purchasing power, and a number of other supply chain problems.
Problems in the Indonesian translation of the book actually deserves to be one of the main agenda of the Ministry of National Education. Why? For the translation of business if judging from the point of transfer of science and technology, market competition, and the nature of capital can be classified as a unique industry. Therefore, in the way of processing business also must take into account the translation of the rules of a company with a unique business law.
After all this, anywhere in the world, the publishing world (including the translation of the book) is always associated with the problem of cultural products. Publisher of books, including the translator, because it was as a driver of community culture.
Maybe in the book industry does not necessarily benefit can obtained a hurry. Because, in the midst of a civilized community environment that is, the business originated (produced) and ends (consumption). How big is the scale and the turnover of a book industry, it is closely related to the carrying capacity of society as the main pillar of support.
Translation of the problem raised in Indonesia, should be limited to actual subject matter: we talk in terms anywhere, because this time the translation of the book moves at a multidimensional process.
Translation of the book can be viewed as a commodity, product graphics, educational technology products, or products information and technology. World translation of the book in this discussion is seen as "merchandise." Thus, translation of the book chain from the point of business.
Unfortunately, until now, has not conducted comprehensive research experienced by publishers in Indonesia. In contrast to the press, industry less the book made the object of scientific study and then look for appropriate solutions.
A simple search, but simply means that, on the world of publishing books in the country is ever conducted by the Association of Indonesian Publishers (Ikapi). However, "research" is only the range of two things - what may be called as yet essential issues concerning the accounting for interest in reading - namely:
(1) Analysis of interest in reading quality books and attractive, and
(2) What are the efforts that must be done to increase interest in reading in Indonesia.
Interest in reading search results conducted in Indonesia Ikapi, sent to the Government. Drafting team concluded, there is a correlation with the interest in reading books of purchasing power. However, also recognized, the amount of interest in reading does not necessarily guarantee the products sold.
However, after that, there was no follow-up. A good report said, remained stored in the drawer. Instead of melting, the issue became more and more frozen and stone. Hard. Increasingly large, making it difficult to solve.
Visit golden age
Research and conducted searches Ikapi had not revealed a problem in translation of Indonesia. Brief survey of the translation of books in general in Indonesia showed, in 1973 may be cited as an important milestone translation of the rise of the world in Indonesia.
According to the magazine notes Prisma (Prisma, May 1987) flow of funds more than Rp58 billion from a special Presidential Instruction to purchase reading materials of children, whether or not the translation. The books were distributed to all primary schools in Indonesia.
Since then, the new round of translation of books in our country then just begun. The Government, through Departemen Pendidikkan dan Kebudayaan bought as many as 1958 titles (from 1973-1987) with details of 197,078,408 copies of the book. Then, between the years 1979-1987, submitted again as many as 16,750 titles of books into the project. But, the number of votes eligible to purchase only the title of 8448 only.
Although since 1973 has created a fresh climate, but 1986 seems to be the beginning of the golden age of translation of the book in Indonesia. Successful translation of the book Dead Russian way of laughter with an effort initiated by the publisher Grafitipers, a follow-up product (me too product) by another publisher.
Imagine! The book's humor, in less than a year, reprinted four times. And do not forget, not even bear circulation responsibility, all 80,000 copies printed. Achievement of this extraordinary clicking sound invitedd admiration of all parties, because at that time that the book best-seller in the category of behavior is marketed as much 7.500/enam months.
Not surprisingly, since 1986 the same year, bookstores (and some five feet) is dominated by translation books. After the boom burst Grafitipers thrown on the market, followed by similar products, of course, with the golden touch and distinctive. Some examples of Mystery Mountain Monster, Three Investigators series, Musashi VII, and the suggestion of Man.
The competition between publishers and the more sharply. International book fair (Frankfurt Book Fair, Germany, for adult books and children's books in Bologna, Italy) thus becomes very significant. Vice publishers who were sent to the exhibition, as well as copyrights held businesses with a variety of publishers in the world. That's where the event occurred purchase transaction to buy copyrights.
The books published in Indonesia is not only translated the book of humor and fiction only. In addition to children's books (some translated books Enyd Bylton) there are also books for adults (Agatha Christie).
In fact, books like Spy Catcher translation published by grants also very popular. This book is in his own native country, England, has caused a political controversy that invite the intervention of Margaret Thatcher - while still the Prime Minister, to ban books published by Heinemann, who is domiciled in Australia.
On the other hand, there are foreign books in his native land classified "old", translated into Indonesian, and sells. Just ask for it is the example of Machiavelli's book, The Lord (published PT Gramedia).
The book actually had adapted in 1953. Perhaps due to the political winds before the 1987 elections, the book that political motives were published again. Whereas, The Lord is the result of long work, four centuries ago, and translated into many languages in the world.
In addition, who was also sold, were translated books comic. Comic translation by Pustaka Sinar Harapan largest revenue contribution during the year 1987-1988 series such as Valhalla, Asterik, Johny Goodbye, or Gnuff.
Later, also ruled the translation from Japanese comics, such as the series was thrown into the market by the publisher Konputindo Elex Media, namely the series 1-6 Temples Yomiku Igarasi essays and Kyoko Mizuki. According to "insiders" Temples series sold 120,000 copies less than a period of six months.
Given the cost of producing the current publication of the book, the translation of foreign business is the cheapest option in terms of cost structure. Because, except for reducing the burden publisher, publishing translations of the book was not as high as the risks if the book is not a translation.
With translations published book, a publisher at most the cost of an interpreter (ranging between 5-7%), with the details of the cost as follows: One sheet of quarto translation Rp7.500-paid 10,000 and one sheet folio Rp11.000. Direct production costs that can not be called cheap enough, indeed.
In contrast, the translation fee set by the Association of Indonesian Translators (HPI) compared with the details on paper, is quite expensive.
In fact, often resolve HPI can not be met in the field. It often happens, the process of translation made the book a "bargain", which came out as the winner is the owner of capital.
Understandably, recent accumulating burden of the publisher. In addition to providing the salary of the translators, publishers still bear the obligation to pay taxes, in addition to over-head cost (20%); of all, if In total could reach 40-50%.
Such burden by the publishers felt so suffocating, so Ikapi never shout berhemti need government issued the Law Book is conducive, which stimulate the excitement of books industry.
Bad but Teak Board
Besides Harry Potter and science books in general, translation of books in our country almost worse. The problem can not simply just pointed nose translator. Many of the chain of causes, including the high cost of copy right, pre-and postproduction costs, costs of marketing chain, to return.
After all this, the translator is the first person to be responsible. Mengalihbahasa trusted him and had also paid for his services. For that, as well as other professions, the translator should be blamed if something goes wrong later in his work.
Not so obvious error in translation of fiction books. However, a fatal translation error is obvious in nonfiction books. Take for example the following translation, the translation case study books Kahlil Gibran.
No doubt, Gibran pretty phenomenal in our country. Can easily find books Waves song translation, Garden of the Prophet, the Men Beloved, Love Letters on May Zaidah, The Lover, The Pilgrim, The Prophet, The Pralambang, Tear and a Smile, Stage Fana, I-SayapPatah, Love Beauty Silence, the petals of the Soul, Lazarus and his Beloved, sand and foam, Lebanon: The Legend and Tears, as well as other books.
Grasindo was not to be outdone, appeared with captivating design, features a luxurious cover. A rather special and is the latest full biography Gibran, Kahlil Gibran: Man and Poet by Suheil Bushrui and Joe Jenkins. This is the most comprehensive and deep study by experts who conducted two prominent Kahlil Gibran Research and Studies Project. While the other is Love Letters, contains love letters between Gibran and May Ziadah who have reprinted more than two times.
In the meantime, we also saw the works of Gibran published by Fajar Pustaka Baru, Landforms Cultural Foundation, the World Pustaka Jaya. But do not ask the results over the language. On average, because the translators do not understand properly the background, atmosphere, and the context of the birth of Gibran's works; results almost worse.
In Jesus the Son of Man for example, found many fundamental mistakes, and mistakes can not be forgiven. For example, in pantheon of the Greek word meaning: many gods (pan = many, theon = god) is translated as "god Pan" (p. 238).
Another absurdity lies in the translation of names in the gospel, like Jacob Son Zabadi (ie, Jakobus son of Zebedee). Or on page 82 "Saul of Tarsus" which means certainly not King Saul in the Old Testament, but Saul, Paul's name before conversion.
Translation errors, the only surface of the iceberg. Sure, there are many others. This shows, there are still many problems facing the Indonesian publishers.
Although classified as severe, over the language to be called "bad teak plank". The number of Gibran's books published in Indonesia showed the public interest to the works of Gibran high enough. As a small proof of this assumption can be viewed on computer data which is available at Gramedia bookstore in Jakarta. There, the stock recorded book beauty and silence of Love had sold out. While the book Jesus the Son of Man, having a second reprint.
Sloppy translation the books were sold. What if a perfect translation?