Senin, 25 Januari 2010

Dayak Culture and Farming

Visit to Borneo without a witness and understand the Dayak tribe farming systems, feels something is missing.

No doubt, Dayak people drank a million favor of farming, a process and the traditional techniques of rice cultivation on dry land. Farming, for the Dayak people, was not just trinkets rice cultivation, but also there is the ritual and the starting point of the cycle of employees.

Unfortunately, because of the burn farming land, in order to get fuel and humus soil is fertile, often accused of Dayak people damage the environment.

In fact, since ancient times wise manage their environment and natural resources. Destructive nature and the environment is not the way Kalimantan and the Dayak-style farming, but the act of destroying timber and illegal loggers elements.
Before burning the fields, Dayak people keep the fire did not spread to another land or forest burning. This is called the "traditional wisdom".

The Dayak people do not damage the forest by farming. They treat the forest so well.

Farm is a confluence of life of all people, especially the Dayak. We can make a long litany of how the field is vital and a key word in the life of mankind. For example: rice fields, corn fields, sugar cane fields, and oil fields. In fact, often also the office, or work, referred to as the fields because there will be harvested from the results.

"Ampus huma ka boh!" So we often hear, when one morning to see relatives. Clearly, the intention is not to huma in terms of fields as land rice cultivation. However, that phrase could be interpreted to go to work or to job security.

This illegal logging is destroying forests rather than the tradition of the Dayak shifting agriculture. This timber logs felled in the mountains upstream section. Then swept away the raft into the river downstream through Mengkiang, Sekayam, Kapuas, Melawi, and Landak river. The practice of illegal logging and the destruction of timber by timber companies must be stopped. Why? Because Borneo island is one of the world ecosystem reserve. Therefore, all citizens of the world should care about the destruction of the ecosystem of the island of Borneo. I personally just do reforestation of about 3.5 hectares of grass land for rubber planting. The best rubber than palm oil plantations proved damaging for the soil. Who's willing to help this effort?

That is the positive side, or meaning, the real field. Namely, the land where people earn a livelihood and sow hope for life. But the field, one time, can also be a negative connotation. For example, field massacre (killing field). In the Nazi era, or moment in our country in the 1960s, noisy, crowded and eliminate members who were considered accomplices of the PKI (Communist Party in Indonesia), the field became a scary word. Not life found in the fields, just the opposite.
Me and in my background is a rubber plantation. This land was full of grass.

Farm and farming Return Cycle
Dayak people wise-wise, not ever, ever defile the word "field". In fact, the fields are considered sacred by the Dayaks because the field proved to be a source of livelihood for them. Therefore, from the beginning to see the land to be used as a field (ngabas poya), until after the harvest (harvest employees), there is always a ceremony related to the fields.

No doubt, see the cycle that the party has to do with the field, it can be concluded that the Dayak people have a special tribute to the farm (land) as a chain of oneness with the universe. This is also evidence that the Dayak people watched very harmonious relationship with the Yang di Atas (Lord of the above) and with all of nature. So, respect and appreciate the field, the same as respect and appreciate the giver and the Origin of Life.

Seeing the process and how the Dayak farming, can be drawn the conclusion that the damage to forests is not the Dayak Kalimantan, but the concession business and large-scale plantations. How could the Dayak forest damage, if the forest becomes part of life and livelihood?

The Dayak people were harvesting paddy in the fields. They were delighted.

Dayak people will farmed back acreage if old enough, that is, after farming 15-20 years ago when the original land was enough topsoil and the trees are big. The philosophy behind this farming cycle is to keep the balance of nature, which is still preserved the harmony between the percentage of forest and arable land.

Thus, natural disasters caused by disharmony of nature and its inhabitants can be eliminated creatures. Herein lies traditional Dayak tribe wisdom, especially in fields that despite maintain farm land and keep it in accordance with the laws of nature too.

Borneo population harmony with nature, including the process and how to farm, until in the 1980s can still be maintained and preserved. However, since the logging companies and plantation came, plus the behavior of gold miners and stone, a lot of land on the equator of the earth became barren and arid.

According to David Jenkins of the observations, a family area Dayak meladangi (farming)average 16 hectares per year in yield per hectare less than 900 kilograms of rice (Jenkins: 1978).

In ancient times, the Dayak are rich (and are) measured not by gold jewelry, diamonds, and jewels, but the measuring of how much grain is stored in the barn. Dayak people rich today eat rice stored in the barn two or three out earlier. Eat rice taken from the barn harvest this year, is not considered to be, just barely.

Behind the cult will be the attitude and lifestyle of eating rice harvest in previous years, saved a very deep philosophy. Since ancient ancestors had used savings in a bank or Credit Union, the person storing rice (wealth) in the barn. Granary regarded as a bank or savings.

Therefore, the Dayak people will have a lot of rich granary of content management, now synonymous with those who have a lot of savings in banks. One again we see the traditional Dayak tribe of worship save the rice in the barn, namely that they actually have to think far ahead about food preparation.

Not local residents but destructive land oil palm plantation business.

The fields for the Dayak people not only functioned as a land that will provide the main results of the rice paddy is very tasty and fragrant aroma. More than that, the field also has other sides, which are not found in wetlands. For example, the ngabas poya (see the land that will be worked), the fields would have to give their own pleasure. Ngabas (come to see) time to be farming land, Dayak people began to set the place (some call it kerancak) which will be hut or cottage. When it burned, hut made probini area (a place to store rice seeds) and later from where the origin of rice seeds to be planted when sowing.

Fields as dry land paddy cultivation provides a livelihood and unparalleled comfort-thing that can not be obtained from cultivation in wetlands. Left nebas example (cut), the area provides a wide field of food and beverages. There umbut ransa, palm, or a good used aping vegetables. Farm also provides a variety of mushrooms, fungi that grow well in the ground or hanging on a dead tree. There are various vegetables bamboo shoots and ferns. Fern forest, usually red and green when cooked, sticky rice mixed tape residue (rampang) is not playing nice.

In fact, when people cut huma Dayak, people often get animals, like snakes, bats, birds, squirrels, forest rats, or hedgehogs that the meat is very delicious to eat. These are all pleasure chain acquired in the process of farming.

That is why, we must give a special note of the farming tradition of the Dayaks. Since the ancestors, to adulthood, people are accustomed to eating rice Dayak huma. They know, huma's livelihood. Therefore it is not possible damaged land Dayak people because it will be salvaged.

Farm No Damaging Environment

Because the process and procedure-wise farming wise to notice the natural law handed down from generation to generation, each person shall maintain Dayak and maintain. Anyone who is not farming in accordance with custom, will be subject to customs.

That is why, there is expression of a very Dayak Sanggau in its meaning, "Poya many bopugongk, many indigenous bolinongk" (nature, to shelter / resting, customary to hold). Acts violated customary, will be excluded from the communal and are considered non-Dayak again.

Then, one destroyer of Borneo forests? Of course, not the local population (indigenous people) who depend on the environment throughout their lives and the nature of Kalimantan, but the settlers and the city! For example, a steal and forest concessions in Kalimantan plantation owners are immigrants and the city. "The city" is intended businessmen from Pontianak and Jakarta, while the immigrants are those who conduct and damaging way of life and nature as a source of livelihood pedestal.

What seems unfair is a rumor that says that the Dayak and the local population is the cause of forest fires. Unfortunately, forest fires and smoke it happened in July-October, same time with natural cycles (summer) as the time for the Dayak burning fields.

In fact, hundreds of years of Dayaks burning fields, and never cause problems. Because, wisdom teaches, field boundaries must be firm, so the fire can not be engulfed land beside it. If the fire from burning the fields to sweep the neighboring land, the owner will pay for custom fields! There are special customary law for that.

Presumably, therefore, Indigenous Dayak Congress never tired of campaigning, destroying forests rather than native Borneo. Unlikely that they would slit his own throat, because the field is the main living footstool. After all, they live and live in it. Old Dayak people convicted of forest fires and environmental damage. To the point, some people need to support and educate the Dayak potential for study in the field of environmental law.

Nevertheless, the assumption that the Dayak people wise in terms of rice cultivation by farming, not just unilateral. Western anthropologists and researchers have given away the day's testimony and record it. In the literature in English, a field called "staff of life" (pedestal of life) of the Dayaks. As noted scientist and anthropologist west, Hedda Morrison in his book published in 1957, Sarawak.

"Rice, the staff of life," wrote Hedda adding that it was planted rice grown in the fields of the Dayaks. Dayak people also praised as a man of noble character wise again. "It is wasteful method of cultivation. When old jungle is felled the same land will produce good rice for two or three consecutive seasons but the burns destroy all protective vegetation. Heavy Rains soon remove the topsoil and the fertility of the land is quickly reduced. "

Hedda did not see how the Dayak farming environmental damage, or disrupt the ecosystem. "If farming can be carried on over a cycle of about 15 years between cuts, the fertility of the soil can be maintained fairly Satisfactory. But as the population increase so does the pressure on the land and the cycle may fall to ten, eight or even five years (Hedda, 1957: 45).

Tradition of farming, now only done Dayak people in certain places. Where the land is still available and the situation allows. June-July, the time and cut ngabas poya. This is the beginning of a cycle of employees ceremony.

Fields in the strips Pantun

Fruit rhymes contain wisdom and deep philosophy. Why? Because the poem is the fruit of the process of crystallization of cultural life and the long-standing and sealed in a simple strips are easy to remember. Thus we see the fruits of rhyme describing the Dayak way of life (modus vivendi) and how are (modus essendi) the community itself.

Thus, the fruit rhyme can be called as "keywords", the idea of principal (central idea), or the nature of the raised out, which refers to the lived culture of a society. When fruit rhymes that often appear, which reflected the idea that if the central traced many terms contained therein "fields".

In the poem, there sampiran, and also, there is content. However, between the two sampiran (rhyme) and content should always be a correlation: the one, should not deny the other. Series of similar rhymes syllogism Dayak people, street thinking (method) logic to draw conclusions and scientific thought that if Aristotle developed the 4th century BC.

Therefore, in the rhymes, traditional wisdom is contained. In addition, of course, reflected in them the creative process and the flow of thought are valid and invalid. If you think the rhymes flow coherently, then the thought in it contains the value, the value of truth.

In addition to mind, from the array rhymes, also can be traced sociological side of a society in which the rhyme is alive and developed. Poem describes not only the atmosphere, as well as social structure, communication, and the refinement of character.

Old people who do not meet (exchanged), for example, would want to express something. If not seen, certainly a lot of things I want to express. However, often the contents of the liver can not be expressed in words. Therefore, silence is a form of communication, too, which is non-verbal communication. Each other, and it was enough to communicate many things, such as the following verse array.

Have not been to the fields
Today the field again
Have not exchanged
Today exchanged again

If you missed passionate, and long time no see, how expressed? No problem. Dayak people have a way to express through rhyme.

Have not to huma (paddy field)
Sugarcane is raised
Long time no see
Desperately longing

How to reveal a vengeful longing, are people who dirly way across? When the radio has not penetrated the forests of Borneo, and indigenous peoples are still primitive, then the moon is a media meet. "Oh moon, longing to say" so in love someone who used to have. Let me, at the same time, the moon sent a message to miss the beloved, to feel vibration-vibration romance, too. If now, simply send an SMS message, do not need to look at the moon!

But, as already described, rhyme was the cultural mirror of a society. Thus, the fruits of rhyme never extinct from the Dayak. Berpantun (the Dayak's rhyme) habits must continue to be maintained and preserved. Because, besides containing the dimensions of entertainment, like rhyme also sharpening thought. Verse array scan pre-1990s, which carried the following 'fields' as sampiran.

Turbid river, shower too turbid
Together we bathe in the fields
Much younger, my brother too much
Our same intoxicated

Time is the most disliked separator, especially if you miss a passionate, yet quite cured. But, the time step that makes bursts of hope, a time, to meet again. Then again promoted to field sampiran rhymes, if you want to split up, and tomorrow hope to see him again. And the Dayak people will hummed the following verse:

If there are wells in the field
Can we ride a shower
If there's longevity
Can we meet again

Dayak people really creative. Word "field", can be a source of inspiration gave birth to rhyme. Array rhymes with basic idea of "fields" and prove that the field is an inseparable part of life and the lives of the Dayak.

Gawai as crown of farming feast
Western anthropologists and Western researchers such as Edwin Gomes (1911) Seventeen Years Among the Sea Dyaks of Borneo and Ivor Evans, Among Primitive Peoples in Borneo (1922) in his study ever to link cause and effect relationships and cultivating employees.

They noted, "This harvest festival (employee-author), gives thanks to the gods and spirits for the Bounty of the land. With Centuries of tradition behind it, this native ritual involves communication with the spirit world, Ancestral worship and feasting with friends and family of the whole community. "

Gawai Dayak Dayak's farming feast), first of all, is an expression of gratitude to the "above". Once upon a time, because there are animists, Dayaks believe in the gods and spirits. Only after the Capuchin missionaries in Borneo land which is still a virgin in 1905, Dayak people know Jesus. When still animists, Dayak people call God as jubata or Penompa. Penompa is terminology which refers to Him who made heaven and earth (to forge = make).

Because the earth creator, jubata, or Penompa, should be given the heart (offerings). Finally, he was given attention with praise, ceremony, and also a party. That is the meaning of the phrase above, "... for the Bounty of the land". Be no doubt that the employee is an expression of gratitude to the land and agricultural produce (gift) that has been delegated jubata/ Penompa.

Difficult sorted from which, obviously, since the first generation there Dayak, an existing employee party. Not just a ritual ceremony, employees also have the side-worship, as well as forms of social communication.

At the time employees, people dancing and singing kondan as they pleased. Echo each other rhymes, complete with sampiran and content. Berkondan reflected in love, but it also contains educational dimension.

Not just anyone skilled berpantun. Berpantun requires a high level of intellect. How could the mind spinning quickly invited to respond to rhymes, when the brain does not dilute excuses? What kind can use words and phrases that appeal, if the mind is not healthy? Consider the following example of this rhyme.

We are afraid pairs flag
Place the flag at half-mast
We are afraid to marry soldiers
've left home to marry

That is an example of the often rhymes didaras (sung) by Dayak women, year-1970-1980's, when heavily-armed forces were intensively into the village. At that time, the soldiers crowded Dayak women marry casually as thirst release on the battlefield. After duty in the Land of the Dayaks, the soldiers left the home Dayak poor women. Born fruit in the verse.

So, rhymes can also treced history and meaning. Just as poetry and Greek mythology Homeros similar to the rhyme and the myth of the Dayaks, beautiful and nuanced character education. In fact, the time of ancient Greece, poetry (rhyme) used as teaching materials to educate citizens of Greece (Hellas).

Rhymes and traditional wisdom of the Dayaks eventually lead us pull rope knot: be smart Dayak people. Only this time there are still only come to the surface. Seed already exists. They are wise, as evidenced by the cultural chain that some of them are still alive today.

Because of that, which is now a tradition kondan, rhymes echo, and beligo? Stored in the pandora box where, stories and myths? Where did the tradition nyidok (men and women are cheek by jowl in the open space as the initial search for soul mate)? Where did the custom of bapangka tops? (match tops) to examine who wins and who loses with grace philosophy of practice? Yes, where are they?

Actually, Dayak cultural chain that long ago acquired the agricultural cycle (from ngabas poya farming land until after the harvest). We feel thirsty again in harmony with nature and God. We had missed companionship and brotherhood. And we loved the beauty, as expressed by kondan dance and rhyme of the re-verb time immemorial played in the farming cycles.

One of the many chain of rice cultivation culture of the Dayak people who now is the party remaining employees (farming feast). There is no problem if the employee establish Kanayant Dayak (Naik Dango) on April 27, Dayak Sanggau and Kapuas Hulu on May 20, or Dayak Iban, Bidayuh, and Ulu in Sarawak, Malaysia on every 1st and June 2nd. Important, employees down to one: an expression of gratitude and the revelation of lahirah oneness with the universe.

As he drank tuak (Dayak's wine), betabas pork and chicken, capable ditingkahi jest and shoved each other reed rice (sobangkangk), the Dayak in the day jovial employee. They forgot to squeeze the life difficulties. For a moment they dissolve in bodily pleasure.

However, it's where the Dayak find spiritual meaning employees: not tasted a drop of heavenly glory of this physical dimension. Glimmer, and only a glimmer. For later, at the end of the age, there was another ceremony. Tiwah name in East Kalimantan. Last rites, led the human body back to his Creator.

Afterword: Dayak Cultural Quo Vadis?
Before answering the question, "Quo Vadis Dayak Culture?" Should first reconcile what is meant by" culture ". Lexically, culture contains two terms:
(1) the results of activities and the creation (reason) people like beliefs, arts, and customs;
(2) the whole of human knowledge as a social creature who used to understand the environment and experiences and to guide their behavior (Great Dictionary of Indonesian Language, 2007: 170).

System (culture) sedentary farming is done the traditional Dayak tribe does not destroy nature and the environment, the same land for new farming again after reaching the 15-20 year cycle. The fields for the Dayak is a vital key word in the chain of life and culture, therefore, many rituals and ceremonies associated with the field of culture. From start to see the land which would be led into the fields until the rice (the crop) to the barn, everything begins and is marked with a party.

Indeed many chain farming rituals and culture that disappeared and can not be found today. Dayak culture, including farming, only undergone a transformation and actualization, but in fact essentially the same.

Thus, the question "Quo Vadis Dayak Culture?" A vital and current, especially since these days, change the world continues to occur. And in the midst of the current changes, the Dayak and their culture have always transformed without losing identity and essence as well as farming.

Which will be brought to Dayak culture, depending Dayak community itself. Can Dayak people, either individually or as a group, transformed in the midst of the current changing times without losing its identity and essence?

3 komentar:

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