Every religion anywhere on this earth must be complemented by a set of ceremony, better known as the rite. What is meant by the rite? Rite is a ritual, or religious ceremony.
The shape and the formulation of religious ordinances usually vary from each other, depending on the background of a nation's culture. So in this context we will see in the Dayak ethnic religious. Dayak ethnicity has their own rite - their unique - and that directly enter the elements of local culture.
Land area of the field after all the plants are cut and waiting to be burned. In terms Dayak Jangkang called "robant".
Fields that were burned. Fire did not spread to other lands.
The cycle of Dayak cultural and religious ceremonies always starts from the farm. Fields appear after the burn does not spread to land beside him. Dayak people have their own way how to burn the fields.
Brief observations showed, people are often wrong when it comes to commenting on the ceremonies of Dayak etnic as the following quote.
"... in none of these feast there does seem to be any real, reverential, religious worship. It is true food is offered to the spirits, but it is done as the mere Observance of an ancient custom, without any approach to religious Reverence." (Edwin H. Gommes, 1911:209)
If we have the opportunity to live with Dayak ethnic, so the impression we get of the religious ceremonies will be different again.
Procession in the series of farming feast. Paraded doll of the life-leaf is a symbol of life.
Can not be drawn reasoning by saying that shortcuts Dayak ethnic less religious or less in if they are not observed routinely perform religious ceremonies, as - for example the Balinese. The Balinese regularly hold religious ceremonies, by preparing offerings to their gods, whereas not the Dayaks. Dayak people hold religious ceremonies at certain times only and is not done every day.
Dayak etnics believe, in their rite reunited with supernatural powers, one that can be mastered dayak this nature. Thus, we can imagine how great ritual significance in Dayak etnic religious. In other words, we can mention, that the rites for the incorporation of Dayak etnic horizontal order of life (humans) to the system of vertical life (supernatural).
In the ritual, people united by supernatural forces. And if taken very sharp, so obvious that the ritual act which actually contains the symbolic meaning. Religion Dayak etnic here offer a concrete model for the claim of religious experience and continuity of relationships based on supernatural powers, the transformation of charisma into a form of organization, practices and a stable mind.
Animals and plants for the offering.
Religious ritual, which consisted of speeches, signs, chanting, sacred meal, and sacrifice - not in the mean as a practical purpose, since the rite is a symbolic transformation of experiences that can not be expressed exactly by other media.
Hence comes from the primary needs of human beings, it is a rite of spontaneous activity, in the sense that what was born complexity rites of intentions, without realizing it with a purpose. In other words, we can state that rite of none other than the expression, or expression of the attitude "I" to the Transcendent and ritual formalization directing human behavior when faced with a sacred object.
Regarding the function of ritual we may note, that for the group he serves as a means of repetition of the right attitude and sacred religious communities to the sacred object. It was often found on the Dayak ethnic religious and cultural ceremonies set as follows.
Gawai (farming feast) is one of the religious ceremony the most important Dayak etnic. This party is usually held after the harvest, as well as a New Year's party of Dayak etnic, which took place between 3-7 days. Not only in western Kalimantan, this course is very popular party, in Borneo, including any empire Malaysia, Gawai is extremely popular.
At every Gawai, in Sarawak, Malaysia, made a public holiday and according to the customs employee at the beginning of the party of Lord Agong always convey holiday greetings to the Dayak community. His name also employees, so the verb begawai.
Pesta Gawai is actually a thanksgiving from Dayak etnic to their gods, because the gods were pleased to give them good fortune.
In the former agricultural land prepared everything necessary for the ceremony. Agricultural tools sprinkled with the blood of the sacrificial animal, with the hope that next year they can still enjoy the same fortune.
At the party must be provided Gawai aimed sacrifices to the gods, accompanied by readings, magic spells. Of thanksgiving addressed specifically to the god of agriculture.
It is interesting to underline the Gawai party is that he not only has a religious aspect only. However, Gawai is also a symbol, which refers to the highest consciousness - which can strengthen their communities - and thus also strengthen their moral community. Gawai party then it is also social action and religious actions.
From the social aspect, Gawai is a facility where young people usually Dayak couple knew each other, marked by nyidok event.
Is an opportunity Nyidok young man/woman of the Dayak choose mate, done at night, and led by a young man who is leading. He shall choose the partner, lined them in a special room, usually in Soa, thereby nyidok event can walk calmly, away from the general crowd. At the time nyidok also shown Kondan dances, ethnic dances typical of Dayak. Happen once, every young man/ girl Dayak master Kondan dance.
On the Gawai party, Dayak traditional foods should be served to each guest. And those who took part in the Gawai party must receive the same services, without any distinction. Food served all present or sobangkangk (lemang) and drink wine. We still can classify more Gawai into several kinds, in accordance with the intention of each.
The women include sticky rice into the cleaned reed (hunting) which was covered with leaves in it pidang and young coconut water to taste. If in large quantities, usually work was done on the riverbank.
Stone called the employees because employees are essentially symbolic means. Gawai Batu closely related to the grindstone, which was supposed Dayak etnic is a symbol of fertility.
The Gawai Batu usually be held to coincide with the first in a rhythm dimulainyatahapan planting suitable for the purpose of Dayak etnic paying homage to the patron deity of agriculture and ruler of lading, the Puyang Gana.
According to the Dayak ethnic beliefs, which maintain Gana Returning rice plants, so that determines agricultural work or not. So it is logical, that this god who made the cult center Gawai party.
Gawai is formulated in such a way that looks great and sacred. First whetstone placed on the porch of the house, followed agricultural tools such as machetes, sickles, picks, hats and more.
Offerings that have been prepared to be presented to Pulang Gana chicken sprinkled with blood. Appropriate ceremonies, a whetstone is placed on the heart of agricultural land. Then, just may be the first stage of planting suitable system of Dayak etnic, namely ngabas poya (farm monitoring).
Seed Gawai done before sowing seeds. The seed is usually taken from rice stalks the best, which is stored in a special basket. When everything was ready, Pulang Gana, the god of agriculture, was asked to come accompanied by kesudiannya reading incantations.
Pulang Gana's arrival meant that he blesses the seeds, so seed if sown later be able to grow and not be disturbed by animal growth or other diseases.
Planting rice sowing or in the field. The man in front with turok (wooden spears) to make a hole in the front, while the woman behind include rice seeds. Seeds taken from the best rice stalks, having previously been in probini event. (Photo: Hedda Morrison in Sarawak).
Store clerk Rice
Rice store clerk was held after the harvest (harvest rice) and after winnowing (separating the rice grains from the stalks), and then the rice was stored in the barn. Interesting that this grain store Gawai held only if the crops had it.
Conversely, if the crop fails, storing rice facultative Gawai. That is, lest wasteful. However, there is the mind behind the store of rice Gawai we have explored, namely bahwadi ceremony under the belief that there are actually difficult to drawn from the Dayak etnic of rice. They believe, rice has a spirit. If the rice spirit is not respected, it is not impossible that the rice will be stored in the barn can mysteriously disappeared.
Ngayau is headhunting, as the evidence of strength. We can hardly explain the thoughts behind this habit, when leaving the historical data until ngayau greeted custom.
The enemy's head frame in the courtyard homes of old Dayak people.
Ngayau later evolved into the tradition of "Red Bowl". Red bowl begins between tahun1350-1389 when Dayak etnic starting position pushed by the tribes of other newcomers, such expeditions conducted by the kings of the island of Java. The most obvious example of the expedition that tried to conquer the Dayak ethnic expedition conducted by the Sri Rajasanegara (Hayam Wuruk) who tried to conquer the Malays Peninsula, and Borneo Tumasik-English.
The attack was very threatening position of Dayak etnic, then among the tribal leaders held an agreement: If one of the areas under attack, the chiefs in the areas of moral shall provide assistance as quickly as lightning. This Agreement at a later date is more popularly known as "Red Bowl".
Why is it called "bowl of red"? of course, this is background. Color bowls filled with blood rather yellowish, tebuat from clay materials with high approximately 2.5 centimeters, in diameter less than 7 inches. In the Dayak language, it is called korangk bowl. Functions can vary, depending on the situation-conditions.
In normal circumstances, korangk function the same as regular bowl. But in a state of emergency, could mean a sign korangk death, if he is filled with chicken feathers, dripping blood, tangui (cap bits), yellow rice and ashes. All things in this bowl symbolizes that the Dayak ethnic brave men, never give up, and tireless.
Red bowl passed around a chain of one village to another village, as the official announcement of war from the heads of the Dayak etnic. Within the last half century can be recorded, Red Bowl 11 times reduced.
Kronolog ethnic conflict between Dayak and Madurese in Kalimantan
Mass of 1950 Fights Madurese migrants and Dayak etnic first broke. This conflict claimed in large numbers. The cause is unclear.
1968 A Head Sungaipinyuh, Pontianak District, called Sani, killed by Madura's farmer. Farmers were disappointed because of the sub-district refuse to serve business letter making the land purchase. The farmer who can not accept the stated reasons, direct
Sani stabbed to death.
Mass and 1967 Fight the expulsion of ethnic Chinese residents do Dayak. Around 50 thousand people fled to the Sarawak Chinese. This conflict is more due to political factors, rather than between-ethnic conflict. Chinese accused the government of Indonesia to the People's Army accomplice North Borneo is branded a communist.
1976 riots between Dayak-Madurase.
Cangkeh murder triggered, a Dayak farmer, who conducted some people are mad Madurese migrants as a shouted by Cangkeh just about mowing the grass at his home.
The clashes broke out again in 1977. This time in Singkawang, Sambas district. Robert Lonjeng, a police Dayak tribe slaughtered a young man of Madura. The young man apparently black eye after a war of words with Robert, who rebuked the young, angry because his sister asked to go to late at night. Robert was killed instantly by the blow of the youth celurit (typical weapons of Madura). Madurese who courted her sister.
1979 Two years later, in Salamantan (at this time I was in high school. I joined to keep a daughter boarding from a mass invasion), still including the Sambas regency, Sidik, a Dayak farmers killed disabet celurit Asmadin Madurese origin. Asmadin
angry when prohibited from mowing the grass at a house owned by Sidik.
Mass fight, kill each other ensued. A total of 21 people were killed and burned 65 homes destroyed. Fortunately, this warnot increase. Because, reinforcements from the Madura reportedly consists of two boats full of men, had followed and back to the land requested by the Regent of Madura at the time. To prevent the repetition of events, founded the Peace monument Salamantan after the peace performed the ceremony.
1983 In Sungaienau, AMBAWANG, Pontianak, fights erupted between ethnic Madurese and Dayak. Triggers, Djaelani murder, a peasant farmer Dayak Madura
because of land conflicts.
Fights between young people of 1993.
Fights Pontianak caused some casualties. Losses also fell The church burned by Queen Mary's School of Peace and Loving Agape Christian Abdi by a group because it is considered as a place gathering Dayaks.
1996-1997 •Fights exploded in the eighth Sanggauledo, Sambas. Action is an anti-Madura
originated from a fight the two tribes a show at dangdut Ledo, 20 kilometers from Sanggauledo. A group of young women teasing Madura and women. Bakrie, son pairs Dayak and Madurese, offended and
sabbed Yokundus and Takim, Dayak youth, so that entry hospital. Yokundus friends had a tantrum and attack social transmigration areas and Marabu Lembang. Local residents transmigration is already blurred. Thus, young reprimand that was burning the houses vacated.
• Round two riots occurred
when a group of masked men set fire to the office and Cooperatives Yayasan Karya Sosial Pancur Kasih owned Dayak tribe. Kill each other even after Sartinus Nyangkot, Head of Village Maribas, Tebas, massacred a group of young men killed Madura Returning confronting her graduation ceremony, Mary Ulfa, in Pontianak. Noted, this event killed nearly 200.
1999, Conflict between the Madurese, Malays, Bugis, who later also involve
Dayak, broke out in Sambas, West Kalimantan. A total of 265 people have died (252 Madura, 12 Malays, a Dayak), 38 injured weight, nine minor injuries. Property destroyed: more than 2330 houses burned and destroyed 164 masses, four cars burned and damaged six, nine motorcycles were burned and the one was destroyed.
This starts from revenge attacks hundreds of cases Madura of Rambaian Village and its surroundings to Paritsetia Village, Sub Jawai. This incident killing three people and three serious injuries in the ethnic Malays. Strangely, the very security forces detained an ethnic Malays, not the citizens of the attacker. Previously there
Besides the case, Rudi, youth from Madura, Bujang attack Labik the Malays, with celurit. Because of Rudi offense gawk at the city's transportation kernet not pay due
fee. After that, a conflict erupted between Dayak etnic and Madura.
There all new cases. Ibrahim, a young man of Madura, carrying homemade firearms Pemangkat Market. Considered swagger, He rebuked some people. Abraham was happy and there was conflict. Afterwards, Ibrahim returned to the house. Whoever perpetrators, suddenly found four people dead Madura, three Perapakan Village and a Village Sinam. Involvement Dayak in this ethnic conflict triggered by the killing of Martin Amat, oil palm plantation workers from Salamantan by a youth. The host's car was burned.
There is still another story, Bugis is also involved. The story begins with a war of words between youth Madura and Bugis, Madurese want to watch for free road race in the main terminal Singkawang. He threatened to Kualasingkawang attack. So, too, adopted Bugis machete. 2001 The conflict between the Dayak and Madurese erupted in Sampit, Central Kalimantan. Based National Commission notes Human Rights, the victim fell achieve approximately 400 inhabitants. According to police data, 319 more homes
burned and about 197 others were damaged. There various versions that triggered the case of ethnic strife between the tenth it. From the story of the killing of a pregnant woman to revenge citizens Madura over unrest in Kerengpangi, East Kotawaringin.
We have seen that ngayau historical background. Now it's time talking about the dimensions ngayau ritual. The first thing to underline is that this is not ngayau be removed from the cult of the god of war, the god Singalang Burong. He was regarded as a war lord, the king of Helmeted bird species. Holding Gawai Burong because the gods demanded it.
There are two other names for the employees Burong, namely Gawai Gawai Tempalang and Pala. This party is important enough, can be seen from the long ceremony which can take up to 3 days. Among the preparations made in connection with the party resembles Burong Gawai Helmeted bird. On the first day of this feast, Dayak men carrying offerings, while others again follow the glorious procession and stopped at a tree, which will be held Burong Gawai.
Offerings are placed under the tree, and the birds are caught on the previous day are slaughtered, its blood sprinkled on the ground with the intention that God Singalang Burong came after he smelled the bird's blood.
If this has been done, then turn now to cut down the tree. One side was carved, then carved it should be brought home and was greeted with a sense of villagers are the sculptor, is dedicated to the heroes who successfully fought Dayak in headhunting.
The statue looks fantastic tenyalang, colored in such a way, given the ornaments that actually have aesthetic value. Burong Gawai still be subdivided into three stages.
First day of Gawai burong
On the first day of Gawai Burong, devoted to completing Tenyalang bird sculptures. At today dihidangkanlah of food and beverages. Profuse abundance to every guest.
Host a party would be considered cheap if the party is not Burong Gawai someone drunk on wine, and who became korbanbiasanya men. They were "forced to" drink lots of beautiful women by offering wine to his mouth as he beteriak that, "weh, weh, weh". The man who offered him wine to drink until tungkal (drunk so didn’t realize).
At the party Burong Gawai Dayak women the most beautiful dress they had, marched on a regular basis with a yellow rice and paddy. They were led by a dancer, who wore full battle dress, holding a sword and shield while demonstrating (reconstruct) the war.
After the dance finished, the dancers will be yellow rice sprinkled into the air and fall to the audience right in the head. Of the dances that come out of the dayak force. The music that moves the spirit of the dancers smoothly a high social significance, as well as religious significance. Therefore, a kind of dance is not just a superficial performance, but-and especially-refers to a sacred power.
Second day of Gawai Burong
On the second day of Gawai party Burong, birds hornbills or artificial kenyalang paraded with great fanfare and a special song sung to him.
On day two, Tenyalang parallel pole mounted. Yellow rice, rice and other offering materials delivered to the solemn Tenyalang. Meanwhile, the carrier-carrier offerings threw him pork and chicken meat, after the first victim's blood smeared.
Preparation for Tenyalang Gawai in Sarawak.
Photo: Hedda Morrison.
Head earned enemies in the war on the second day of Gawai Burong party placed in a huge brass platter. Made him a dish of food and drink specifically as well. Quite horrible, that some of the food and beverage offerings that will be inserted into the skull's mouth. If there is still remaining, the rest of the food and beverages must be placed in front of him until the ceremony is complete.
Except Tenyalang statue, made also pandongk (stage) and hanging charms on it. Similarly, other war materials such as: saber, sword, chopsticks, shields and spears; should be hanged together amulet.
Then, people who got the assignment to read the incantation up pandong, dancing around my head; a severed head, while singing incantations. There are two singers wore custom core.
If it is considered necessary (eg if the number of heads so many) then the two singers could be assisted core five to six other singers, so much fun. They will sing alternately punctuated each line of the incantation. But some specific mantras sung together. The officers must wear traditional clothes yan hung down below her ankles, they also carried a cane in his hand while dancing, denagn feet narimenghentakkan regular rhythm.
Singing incantations taken time duration Gawai party is obliged to choose Burong epic story that illustrates the traditional figure of a hero Dayak. This epic story featuring the most frequently Klieng, a hero who does not have both.
Narrated, on his return from the war, Klieng Gawai is always a party in honor Burong god of war. The story is deliberately chosen, to excite their hearers to make Klieng as an ideal figure.
Really fantastic, that song is epic Klieng can take up all night long. Readings spell held at eight o'clock that night and just ended the next day. They sang chants in charge never rest, but only stopped for a moment alone at midnight.
Gawai burong day of the third
On the third day, the last day of Gawai Burong, all the audience out of the house into a place called Tanju. Each carried sendri food and drink separately.
The most typical of the third day of Gawai Burong is that should be taken along a pig alive. Usually tribal leaders apart from ordinary people, they DDI beautiful rug, which has been prepared specifically for them.
Since leaving gendering continuous sound. Live pigs paraded in such a way, then slaughtered witnessed by all present. When the puncture on her neck babidan not berdayak, all the audience cheered with delight.
They keep berteiak hysterically, until you see a bird flying in the air. The bird is the manifestation Singalang own Burong indicating that he received regarding the victim offered to him. Thus, the entire series Burong Gawai party has resolved and the audience returned to their homes with joy.
Fibers is the palm, the palm-wine from the stems of water can be obtained. If someone had followed Gawai Burong several times, then Ijuk party no longer needs to be done. Distinctiveness of this party is the long pole and installed on the top put a pot of water wine. These offerings dihunjukkan to Singalang Burong. Ijuk party only lasted a day.
Balian is analogous to the practice of shamanism. Only difference, healers held if a person (or group) is considered the pain caused by the anger of the gods.
Formulation healers prescribed such that only certain people are biased to enable it. The materials for this shaman ceremonies are chicken meat, cakes, yellow rice, young coconut leaves, sabang leaves, eggs and wine. Jars placed in the middle, and the victims are prepared on a the (altar). Near the hospital installed the tree symbolizes life. When the quasi're ready, then builders and healers began the ceremony with sabang he leaves fanning the sick while reading (singing) incantations.
In essence, there are at least three ideologies that underlie the practice of shaman.
First, with the soul of the shaman ceremony will be normalized back pain. Here we see a view of Dayak etnic dualism that separates body and soul, because according to Dayak etnic belief, the sick could be due to disharmony of soul and body; the shaman ceremony will harmonized back.
Second, the shaman, it is expected that the spirits that disturb the nest and the sick so that the spirits that disturb the needs driven by balia ceremony.
And third, the shaman will remove all kinds of mysterious objects or animals are lodged in the patient's body one of the umu incantations used when holding a shaman ceremony the following chant.
Tulung babongkar, babongkar samua panas di badan jangan tertinggal, mambongkar samua, biar menyisih muga melayang tempo angin, muga melongsong dari embangan, muga meluwa dari gendongan, lalu kacampak dipukul ombak, lalu terserei di karang tajam, lalu tergalang di karang bonda, lalu tercampa, laut Selebu muga selamat, harung badannya teda rahayu, dendang kurungnya, teda selamat, teda rahayu semua menyinta, sama meneda.
Come help raise, let's help all suffering from heat up the body eliminate all spending all gone extinct in order to wind down, so that a hurricane was rushed extinct, that bounced off a scarf, that protruded from the pack and then dumped, hit the waves so that the pointy t stabbed rock , and slammed the big rocks on the sea and struck Selebu aagr the whole body becomes white so comfortable, so that the patient feels good, we ask for salvation for the soul in confinement, we ask for health, we ask for welfare, we all ask.
Not everyone ceremony healers led. To be master of ceremonies, the individual must have specific calls from the gods, and calls it happen time of the ceremony healers.
All of a sudden someone gets visions, he became so scream visions to catch him. As a result of visions that someone becomes unconscious, unconscious. Once conscious again, he would tell her experience to meet with the Holy One, and at that moment that a shaman would be ordained.
Birth ceremonies for Dayak etnic more emphasis on ancestral traditions. However, not necessarily mean the dimensions of the ritual does not exist. We can divide the ceremony there are three kinds of birth.
Time of Birth
At the time the child is born a simple ceremony marked by cutting the cord. Then, just as important, give a name to him, because the name of the Dayak's family has a very important meaning. It was thought, bahwanama also determine the fate of the child in the future.
Bath ceremony is usually done on time 40-day-old child. Baby bathing ceremony, when the sun began to move in the horizontal point, which symbolizes new life.
Dayak ethnic assume, in the morning ajahat spirits still asleep, so the baby can memandika ceremony go smoothly without any interruption. While bathing the baby's ceremonial leader is usually performed by village midwives who delivered the baby's mother.
Dayak etnic also know the habits of circumcision. The ceremony was held ahead of a Dayak man went up. Before the ceremony goes on, people who will be circumcised first soak in a river. That is, so later when circumcised, Kult approach to software; so that pain can be reduced.
However, not all men do the tradition of circumcision. Ot Danum interest only are required every male circumcision among circumcised because the tribe is a social phenomenon. That is, if someone is not circumcised he will receive criticism, especially from women.
Marriage for Dayak etnic is a very important moment, because marriage is not merely a biological phenomenon alone but regarded as a dramatization or reconstruction of the creation myth of this world.
According to the Dayak ethnic assumptions, this universe happens because the gods in "up" there hold intercourse with the goddess in the "bottom" of this. Results antarkeduanya relationship was later produced this universe.
Seen from the socio-cultural dimensions, the Dayak ethnic marriage to a descendant of the forwarding process should be done. So the greater number of members of the tribe, the better, because then their existence would not be threatened by groups who want to attack him laib.
In times past, highly valued the birth of a boy than women. This is understandable, because in times of war the role of boys very prominent compared to women. That is why the man occupying the highest position among the Dayak ethnic.
The nature of marriage
For Dayak etnic ideal marriage is if the marriage was performed between one man with one woman (monogamy). Because of the marriage obtained monogamilah family welfare. So to achieve sustainability ethnic marriages among Dayak have laws that regulate traffic of the more popular wedding called Customary Law Marriage.
There is no marriage among Dayak etnic, without knowing the stages. This stage is very important, because to achieve a legitimate marriage these stages must be fulfilled. There are five stages of marriage.
Botugok is the first stage in the rhythm perkawinanetnis Dayak ceremony. At this stage of relatives of the groom's family meeting, to take a deal whether or not an application submitted to the candidate's wife with a man weighing all consequences may be caused by a marriage that later. For example, if the woman does not have a hereditary disease.
Consideration must not only be based on heredity, but also other considerations such as social status, economic background, skills and others. If all votes in a family meeting to meet persyarata, the male relatives will determine intermediaries to apply for the girl.
Ngusik atai nglamar
This second stage is to send an intermediary (Mr. Rope) to apply for her dream, which in the language called Dayak ngusik atai nglamar.
If the application is received by the man the girl, then the agreement will be marked with a ring exchange ceremony that symbolizes loyalty. Violating an act of loyalty unbiased ditolelir, because among the Dayak ethnic loyalties occupy very high positions so that breaking a promise to apply customary law demands.
Period botunang (engaged) is also a deeper acquaintance stage for both prospective brides. It could happen, after a period of several months of such engagement, the marriage was null and void. But there are consequences, namely that the first who canceled the wedding, that's the wrong side. The wrong side have to pay customs, as determined in the customary law marriage.
In the fourth stage of the Dayak ethnic marriages, namely Ponga, we've seen the sacred nature of marriage. At this time everything is prepared as the preparations for the party during Gawai.
In the evening the girl's family usually drinks wine served to the guests. Mr. rope with his entourage to ask questions to the girl in the form of rhyme or insinuations, and answered all the rhymes and insinuations by the girl's bride, or a representative.
After the ceremony was over, it's time the marriage ceremony. Both the bride sat biting down on a large gong and a mother put a coconut in front of them intact.
Groom then drove the spear into the coconut fruit. The whole coconut symbolizes the girl's virginity. Then, an indigenous leader swinging a rooster on the two heads of the bride, as he read the prayer, which essentially expects that both families were happy.
Last stage of the circuit sleuruh nuptial adalh ngkori monok (repatriated birds). Both the bride in turn visited the parents of each, and goodbye.
Dramatization of the universe
For Dayak, marriage is an institution to continue the descent, there is also malinkan religious dimension, namely that marriage is seen as a dramatization of the universe. Dayak etnic view that the universe is happening because of the sexual relationship between the gods "above" and the goddess "below.
Therefore, marriage is considered sacred, and at times encouraged the audience ceremony to rethink how the early universe happened. Dayak ethnic marriage is a dramatization of this myth.
Sacred nature of marriage is also marked by various rituals, such as the slaughter of a rooster and a hen, which symbolizes the unity of the soul of men and women.
Chicken blood was stirred with a feather and then smeared on the forehead and certain parts of the body of the intending spouses. The purpose is to act spirits fine not to interfere, because both families have been sealed with chicken blood.
Master of ceremonies was the chairman of the customary marriage. When will start the ceremony, he took the rice that has been available in a small bowl and sprinkle into each of the four winds. Time of rice was then spread to both families with the intention to bring good fortune scattered for their lives in the future.
Death for Dayak etnic is not the end of everything. But according to Dayak etnic view, the death of momentum in where resettlement occurs. The dead say back to the gods and lived where the gods lived. With the demise of a Dayak, then he returned and entered into the kingdom of his ancestors.
So the death of the Dayak ethnic outlook was never seen with a negative lens. Death is opening a new chapter to enter another's life. Because the dead are considered "not finished", then the death is always a big concern for the Dayak etnic. Caution was evident in the various ceremonies performed in connection with the death.
Tiwah or celebration of the dead, is typical of the Dayak ethnic Ngaju. Tiwah means seseuatu apart from the previously allowed or not allowed. Tiwah aims to bring the dead arwahh circumstances in heaven and length bias ceremony takes up to 33 days.
But for the Dayak etnic Klemantan little else. Dayak ethnic Klemantan have their own ceremonies in connection with the death, that is what is more popular with employees called Antu (ghost).
Preparation of bias funeral lasted for days, all close relatives were asked their participation helps. Gifts of money or goods prepared for the most meritorious in preparation for this funeral.
Gawai Antu is no specific time period to have it. This employee cost is very expensive, because it was custom-nundanya delaying for years. Even bias also gawai Antu party together and the cost borne together well.
Because Dayak etnic assume, that the dead (especially someone prominent who frequently consulted him) is always ready to help the people who are still alive, then it may invite the spirits when Gawai Antu.
Dayak etnic think it does not matter. They will invite the spirits by sending a small boat, called Lumpang and one of the preparatory ceremony membuatmenumen Gawai Antu is a grave warning.
The women mengnyam bamboo handicrafts made from all kinds of imitation and then the results will be hung on the grave with the belief that dead people can use it. If the funeral preparations for a man, then was made ornaments made of bamboo spears, spears, hats and gear of war in the cemetery. And if for women should be prepared tanunan tools, fish baskets, tools and winnow to pound rice.
When the preparation has been done, the ceremony in place. Once the ceremony Gawai Antu - shot in a cemetery - will begin, marked by the singers of the Dayak ethnic best.
Ceremony begins at dusk, because according to Dayak etnic belief, the spirits of the world trip "there" to duani "here" so far and it took at least one day. Funeral hymn sung without ever stopping until morning, same time with wine drinking ceremony jointly between the yag living and the dead.
Medium that brings the dead and those alive when a portion of Gawai Antu adalh wine that had been prepared in a special urn.
Not everyone lives dare to drink with the spirits of the dead, only the brave and the Dayak warriors have done it. Ceremonial drink the wine along with it come with horrible shouts and unconscious. When this happens, then it's a sign they had united with the spirits of people died.
Departure ceremony bala (eject everything bad and evil)
Dayak language decline in reinforcements means cast out the spirits, cast out the disease. So starting ceremony reinforcements mean bias: religious ceremony to ward off evil spirits that disturb a village or village.
According to the Dayak ethnic beliefs, all kinds of diseases or plagues came from King Shit and therefore deemed necessary to conduct a religious ceremony for him away.
In a ceremony expel evil spirits is provided the victims of "replacement" of human life, namely the selection of animals used custom chicken. It means the animal is selected chicken, to "bribe" the King of Hell is about to wreak havoc. And when he saw the victim offered to him, he became lose heart and bring out the attack or pest disasters.
Here is obvious, that the ceremony of departure reinforcements contain certain thoughts that want to take the heart of King Shit. Seems also that the origin of all diseases can be "controlled" people with the ceremonial ritual or a particular ritual, so that we can say that the nature of the ceremonies is du ut des (I give so you give).
Thus, it is almost all Dayak ethnic rhythms of life and then become ritualistic because everyday lives of their victims so dominated by speculative thought they were dominated by the victim. As a result, victims have Dayak in a mystical magic, which is the mystery, which is more powerful than the gods.
The purpose of departure ceremony reinforcements are cast out demons, or pestilence, with a substitute sacrifice human lives to the King of Hell. Then make the sacrifice to his knees defeated gods, so that the victim becomes a dayak / stand-alone force. Victim, according to the assumption of Dayak etnic, is part of the absolute and desired by the Supreme substances from the beginning.
Departure ceremony on the implementation of these reinforcements we can split them up into three stages, among others.
The first thing to do in the first stage of the ceremony is starting reinforcement materials such as palm wine ceremony, yellow rice, Lemang and two chickens. Two chickens were selected, a large tail and a small tail again. Great to be slaughtered as a sacrifice, a little while still allowed to live as a victim instead. In this preparation was also made a raft of banana stems that later on when the ceremony will be swept away starting reinforcements together sacrifice.
Ceremony on the river
Bala departure ceremony took place in a river. The raft of banana stem prepared in advance by the river, while ipemimpin ceremony at his home to the audience explaining the purpose of departure ceremony bala.
After giving an explanation, the audience together in contrast to the stream. Master of ceremonies began the ceremony by reciting the starting bala-spells Matera, to inform the King of Hell so that he can no longer send "reinforcements" to the village for a replacement "reinforcements" have been prepared
Little chicken left alive on the raft moored already available. Master of ceremonies will read this incantation.
“Rari penyakit,rari! Anyut basamo rakit tuk, bayah ngaru kami agik sebab kami dah diganti manok; ntik mauk makant makantlah manok tuk.”
Run the disease, run! Drifting along with the raft, do not disturb us anymore because we have been replaced by chicken. If you want to eat, eat this chicken.
After reading spells, ceremonial leader of the raft washed away along with the live chicks and the same time it also gone missing then all the diseases that have been disturbing the peace of the village residents. With these reinforcements departure ceremony all citizens are save of the village from disaster.
Other religious ceremonies
Except for major ceremonies Dayak ethnic religious said as before, there is another religious ceremony; but less important and not compulsory (optional ceremony). However, for those who perform the ceremony itself and the reward signal, that they are truly religious appreciation of and intense.
Not inevitable, that in every religion there are certain primitive elements superstition, so here we will see in the Dayak etnic indigenous religion.
Dayak ethnic sense of living in fear of supernatural forces believed in the dream, which is said to be a means in which the Transcendent, the Holy One, the not-understood can usually express its will to men.
That is why the Dayak etnic always meet the desires of the can-not understand that every time a dream. For example, if someone dreams, that god of a particular animal then asked to be filled the next day. Offerings or the victim is given a religious ceremony.
Dayak etnic is a great observer, they see signs of birds. Birds were seen as a manifestation of the spirit Singalang Burong. So if a bird had entered the homes of the Dayaks, a special ceremony to be held with preparing offerings for Singalang Burong.
Recovering from an illness
If the household member suffering from a disease which, according to rational calculations he must die for it but instead he recovered from illness, the family of the patient is usually a simple ceremony. The ceremony was intended to thank the gods that have been cured.
Mandi Rumah (Bath House)
Ceremony held shower house every time Dayak etnic will occupy the new house. Ceremony performed with the intention that the house and its occupants are protected from disasters such as fire, burglary and vandalism. New homes sprinkled with the blood of the sacrificial animal. That is why this ceremony is called a "bath house".
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